Computers Knowledge Internet / Networking PDF

Internet Networking notes

The Internet is global collection of people's computers, which are linked together by cables and telephone lines making communication possible among them in a common language. By definition, a network allows computer users to share computer equipment and programs, messages, and the information available at one site.

How does Internet Work?

A computer network by definition allows sharing of resources. For such a communication, we require the address of the destination and a safe means of moving data in the form of electronic signals.

As far as safe movement of data is concerned, there exists a set of rules, which govern the sending and receiving of data on the Internet. These rules are implemented in two parts in the networks software and are called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP). These two are collectively called TCP/IP.

The following can be a typical person-understandable address on Internet: user name@host.domain 

Hosts are in general, individual machines at a particular location. Resources of a host machine is normally shared and can be utilised by any user on Internet.

Domains are general category that a computer on the Internet belongs to. The most common high level domains are .com (commercial), .org(organisation) etc.

Tools & Services on Internet

To work with Internet and to utilise some of the points mentioned above we use certain tools. For example, Telnet is a tool, which is utilised for logging on remote computers on the Internet. 

Electronic Mail: One of the very useful things about the Internet is that it allows you almost instant exchange of electronic message (e-mail) across the world. E-mail is mainly used for sending electronic piece of text.

The Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) is a language used for creating documents for the World Wide Web.

Standard Generalised Markup Language (SGML) is used for defining the structure and managing the contents of any digital document. HTML used in many world wide web document on the Internet is a part of SGML.

World Wide Web (WWW): It is a huge collection of hyper text pages on the Internet. It is one of the most flexible and exciting tools in existence for surfing the Internet.

Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP) is used to manage the links between one hyper text document and another.

Home Page: It is an initial starting page.

Uniform Resource Locater (URL) is a method of accessing Internet resources. URLs contain information about both the access method to use and also about the resource itself, and are used by web browsers to connect you directly to a specific document or page on the World Wide Web, without you having to know where that resources is located physically.

Web browser: A World Wide Web client application that lets you look at hyper text documents and follow links to other HTML documents on the Web. 

File Transfer Protocol (FTP): The protocol used to access a remote Internet host, and then transfer files between that host and your own computer. FTP is based on client/ server architecture;

Modem: Contraction of modulator/ demodulator; a device that allows a computer to transmit information over a telephone line. The modem translates between the digital signals that the computer uses, and analog signals suitable for transmission over telephone lines. When transmitting, the modem modulates the digital data onto a carrier signal on the telephone line. When receiving, the modem performs the reverse process, and demodulates the data from the carrier signal.

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