Digital Electronics or Miscellaneous Notes PDF

Digital Electronics Notes

Append: The operation of adding information to the end of an existing file. For example, in dBASE, the APPEND command lets users add new records at the end of a table.

Assembler: A program that converts an assembly language program into machine language so that the computer can run the program.

Attribute: A file attribute is a characteristic that indicates whether the file is a read-only file, a hidden file, a system file, or has changed in some way since it was last backed up.

Bug: A logical or programming error in hardware or software that causes a malfunction of some sort. If the problem is in software, it can be fixed by changes to the program. If the fault is in hardware, new circuits must be designed and constructed.

Batch file: An ASCII text file containing operating system commands and possibly other commands supported by the batch processor. Batch files are used to automate repetitive tasks.

Boot: The loading of an operating system into memory, usually from a hard disk, although occasionally from a floppy disk. This is an automatic procedure begun when you first turn on or reset your computer. A set of instructions contained in ROM begin executing, first running a series of power on self tests (POST) to check that devices such as hard disks are in working order, then locating and loading the operating system, and finally, passing control of the computer over to that operating system.

Buffer: An area of memory set aside for temporary storage of data, often until some external event completes. Many peripherals, such as printers, have their own buffers. The computer transfers the data for printing from memory into the buffer, and the printer then processes that data directly from the buffer, freeing the computer for other tasks.

Bounce: The return of an e-mail message to its original sender due to an error in delivery.This may be due to a simple spelling mistake in the e-mail address, the recipient's computer system may be down, or they may no longer subscribe to or have an account on the system.

Bridge: In networking, a hardware device used to connect local area networks (even networks using different wiring or network protocols) together so that they can exchange data. A bridge operates at the data-link layer of the International Standards Organisation's Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) model for computer-to-computer communications, and manages the flow of traffic between the two local area networks by reading the address of every packet of data that it receives.

Brouter: In networking, a device that combines the attributes of a bridge and a router. A brouter can route one or more specific protocols, such as TCP/IP, and bridge all others.

Config.sys: In DOS and OS/2, a special text file containing settings that control the way that the operating system works.

Ethernet: It is a popular network protocol and cabling scheme with a transfer rate of 10 megabits per second. Ethernet uses a bus topology capable of connecting upto 1024 PCs and workstation within each main branch. Network nodes are connected by using either thick or thin coaxial cable, or by twisted-pair wiring.

Gateway: In networking, a shared connection between a local area network and a larger system, such as a mainframe computer or a large packet-switching network.

Router: In networking, an intelligent connecting device that can send packets to the correctlocal area network segment to take them to their destination. Routers link local area network segments at the network layer of the International Standards Organisation's Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) model for computer-to-computer communications.

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