Computers Knowledge ISO / OSI Model Concepts

ISO / OSI Model notes

In networking, a reference model defined by the ISO that divides computer-to-computer communications into seven connected layers. Such layers are known as a ''Protocol stack".

Each successively higher layer builds on the functions of the layers below, as follows:

Application layer 7 (Upper most): The highest level of the OSI model. It defines the way that application programs interact with the network, including database management, electronic mail, and terminal emulation programs.

Presentation layer 6: The presentation layer defines the way that data is formatted, presented, converted and encoded.

Session layer 5: The session layer coordinates communications and maintains the session for as long as it is needed, performing security, logging, and administrative functions.

Transport layer 4: The transport layer defines protocols for message structure, and supervises the validity of the transmission by performing some error checking.

Network layer 3: The network layer defines protocols for data routing to ensure that the information arrives at the correct destination node.

Datalink layer 2: The datalink layer validates the integrity of the flow of data from one node to another by synchronizing blocks of data, and controlling the flow of data.

Physical layer 1 (Lowermost): The physical layer defines the mechanism for communicating with the transmission medium and interface hardware.

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